The Vermont Statutes Online
Title 32 : Taxation and Finance
Chapter 121 : GENERAL PROVISIONS
Subchapter 004 : MISCELLANEOUS(Cite as: 32 V.S.A. § 3481)
§ 3481. Definitions
The following definitions shall apply in this Part and chapter 101 of this title, pertaining to the listing of property for taxation:
(1)(A) “Appraisal value” shall mean, with respect to property enrolled in a use value appraisal program, the use value appraisal as defined in subdivision 3752(12) of this title, multiplied by the common level of appraisal, and with respect to all other property, except for owner-occupied housing identified in subdivision (C) of this subdivision (1), the estimated fair market value. The estimated fair market value of a property is the price that the property will bring in the market when offered for sale and purchased by another, taking into consideration all the elements of the availability of the property, its use both potential and prospective, any functional deficiencies, and all other elements such as age and condition that combine to give property a market value. Those elements shall include the effect of any State or local law or regulation affecting the use of land, including 10 V.S.A. chapter 151 or any land capability plan established in furtherance or implementation thereof, rules adopted by the State Board of Health, and any local or regional zoning ordinances or development plans. In determining estimated fair market value, the sale price of the property in question is one element to consider, but is not solely determinative.
(B) For residential rental property that is subject to a housing subsidy covenant or other legal restriction, imposed by a governmental, quasi-governmental, or public purpose entity, on rents that may be charged, fair market value shall be determined by an income approach using the following elements:
(i) market rents with utility allowance adjustments for the geographic area in which the property is located as determined by the federal office of Housing and Urban Development or in the case of properties authorized under 42 U.S.C. § 1437, 12 U.S.C. § 1701q, 42 U.S.C. § 1485, 12 U.S.C. § 1715z-1, 42 U.S.C. § 1437f, and 24 CFR Part 882 Subpart D and E, the higher of contract rents (meaning the amount of federal rental assistance plus any tenant contribution) and HUD market rents;
(ii) actual expenses incurred with respect to the property that shall be provided by the property owner in a format acceptable to the Commissioner and certified by an independent third party, such as a certified public accounting firm or public or quasi-public funding agency;
(iii) a vacancy rate that is 50 percent of the market vacancy rate as determined by the U.S. Census Bureau with local review by the Vermont Housing Finance Agency; and
(iv) a capitalization rate that is typical for the geographic area determined and published annually prior to April 1 by the Division of Property Valuation and Review after consultation with the Vermont Housing Finance Agency.
(C) For owner-occupied housing that is subject to a housing subsidy covenant, as defined in 27 V.S.A. § 610, imposed by a governmental, quasi-governmental, or public purpose entity, that limits the price for which the property may be sold, the housing subsidy covenant shall be deemed to cause a material decrease in the value of the owner-occupied housing, and the appraisal value means not less than 60 and not more than 70 percent of what the fair market value of the property would be if it were not subject to the housing subsidy covenant. Every five years, starting in 2019, the Commissioner of Taxes, in consultation with the Vermont Housing Conservation Board, shall report to the House Committee on Ways and Means on whether the percentage of appraised valued used in this subdivision should be altered and the reasons for his or her determination.
(D)(i) For real and personal property comprising a renewable energy plant generating electricity from solar power, except land and property that is exempt under subdivision 3802(17) of this title, the appraisal value shall be determined by an income capitalization or discounted cash flow approach that includes the following:
(I) an appraisal model identified and published by the Director employing appraisal industry standards and inputs;
(II) a discount rate determined and published annually by the Director;
(III) the appraisal value shall be 70 percent of the value calculated using the model published by the Director based on an expected 25-year project life and shall be set in the grand list next lodged after the plant is commissioned and each subsequent grand list for the lesser of the remaining life of the project or 25 years;
(IV) for the purposes of calculating appraisal value for net metered systems receiving a credit specified in 30 V.S.A. § 219a(h)(1)(K), the model used to calculate value will not incorporate a factor for electricity rate escalation; and
(V) for plants operating as a net-metered system as described in 30 V.S.A. § 219a with a capacity of 50 kW or greater, the plant capacity used to determine value in the model shall be reduced by 50 kW and the appraisal value shall be calculated only on additional capacity in excess of 50 kW.
(ii) The owner of a project shall respond to a request for information from the municipal assessing officials by returning the information sheet describing the project in the form specified by the Director not later than 45 days after the request for information is sent to the owner. If the owner does not provide a complete and timely response, the municipality shall determine the appraisal value using the published model and the best estimates of the inputs to the model available to the municipality at the time, and the provisions of section 4006 of this title shall apply to the information form in the same manner as if the information form were an inventory as described in that section. Nothing in this subdivision (1)(D) shall affect the availability of the exemption set forth in the provisions of section 3845 of this title or availability of a contract under the provisions of 24 V.S.A. § 2741.
(E) For real and personal property comprising an energy storage facility, except land and property that is exempt under subdivision 3802(19) of this title, the appraisal value shall be $0.25 per kWh of plant energy rating.
(2) “Listed value” shall be an amount equal to 100 percent of the appraisal value. The ratio shall be the same for both real and personal property. (Amended 1959, No. 175, eff. Jan. 1, 1960; 1965, No. 126, § 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1967; 1973, No. 85, § 11, eff. July 1, 1973; 1977, No. 105, § 6; 1995, No. 178 (Adj. Sess.), § 285; 1997, No. 60, § 64, eff. June 26, 1997; 2005, No. 38, § 1; 2005, No. 75, § 6; 2007, No. 81, § 10; 2013, No. 174 (Adj. Sess.), §§ 27, 54, eff. Jan. 1, 2015; 2017, No. 154 (Adj. Sess.), § 10, eff. May 21, 2018; 2021, No. 54, § 19.)