The Vermont Statutes Online
Subchapter 008 : VERMONT FALSE CLAIMS ACT(Cite as: 32 V.S.A. § 630)
§ 630. Definitions
As used in this chapter:
(1) "Claim" means any request or demand, whether under a contract or otherwise, for money or property, and whether or not the State has title to the money or property, that:
(A) is presented to an officer, employee, or agent of the State; or
(B) is made to a contractor, grantee, or other recipient, if the money or property is to be spent or used on the State's behalf or to advance a State program or interest, and if the State:
(i) provides or has provided any portion of the money or property that is requested or demanded, or
(ii) will reimburse directly or indirectly such contractor, grantee, or other recipient for any portion of the money or property that is requested or demanded. A claim shall not include a request or demand for money or property that the State has paid to an individual as compensation for State employment or as an income subsidy with no restrictions on that individual's use of the money or property.
(2) "Knowing" and "knowingly":
(A) means that a person, with respect to information:
(i) has actual knowledge of the information;
(ii) acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the information; or
(iii) acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information; and
(B) requires no proof of specific intent to defraud.
(3) "Material" means having a natural tendency to influence, or be capable of influencing, the payment or receipt of money or property.
(4) "Obligation" means an established duty, whether or not fixed, arising from an express or implied contractual, grantor-grantee, or licensor-licensee relationship, from a fee-based or similar relationship, from statute or regulation, or from the retention of any overpayment after the deadline for reporting and returning the overpayment under subdivision 631(a)(10) of this chapter.
(5) "Original source" means an individual who:
(A) prior to a public disclosure under subsection 636(c) of this chapter, has voluntarily disclosed to the State the information on which allegations or transactions in a claim are based; or
(B) has knowledge that is independent of and materially adds to the publicly-disclosed allegations or transactions, and who has voluntarily provided the information to the State before filing a false claims action.
(6) "Overpayment" means any State or federal funds that a person receives or retains to which the person, after applicable reconciliation, is not entitled.
(7) "Relator" or "qui tam plaintiff" means an individual who brings an action under subsection 632(b) of this chapter.
(8) "State" means the State of Vermont, a county, a municipality or other subdivision thereof and commission, board, department, or agency thereof or any other governmental entity authorized or created by State law, including public corporations and authorities. (Added 2015, No. 25, § 1, eff. May 18, 2015.)