The Vermont Statutes Online
The Vermont Statutes Online have been updated to include the actions of the 2023 session of the General Assembly.
NOTE: The Vermont Statutes Online is an unofficial copy of the Vermont Statutes Annotated that is provided as a convenience.
Subchapter 001 : General Provisions(Cite as: 26 V.S.A. § 2023)
§ 2023. Clinical pharmacy; prescribing
(a) In accordance with applicable rules adopted by the Board, a pharmacist may engage in the practice of clinical pharmacy, including prescribing as set forth in subsection (b) of this section, provided that a pharmacist shall not:
(1) prescribe a regulated drug as defined in 18 V.S.A. § 4201;
(2) prescribe a biological product as defined in 18 V.S.A. § 4601, other than an insulin medication, an influenza vaccine or vaccine to mitigate a significant public health risk, or, pursuant to a collaborative practice agreement, another vaccine; or
(3) initiate antibiotic therapy, except pursuant to a collaborative practice agreement.
(b) A pharmacist may prescribe in the following contexts:
(1) Collaborative practice agreement. A pharmacist may prescribe, for the patient or patients of a prescribing practitioner licensed pursuant to this title, within the scope of a written collaborative practice agreement with that primary prescriber.
(A) The collaborative practice agreement shall require the pharmacist and collaborating practitioner to contemporaneously notify each other of any change in the patient’s pharmacotherapy or known medical status.
(B) Under a collaborative practice agreement, a pharmacist may select or modify antibiotic therapy for a diagnosed condition under the direction of the collaborating practitioner.
(2) State protocol.
(A) A pharmacist may prescribe, order, or administer in a manner consistent with valid State protocols that are approved by the Commissioner of Health after consultation with the Director of Professional Regulation and the Board and the ability for public comment:
(i) opioid antagonists;
(ii) epinephrine auto-injectors;
(iii) tobacco cessation products;
(iv) tuberculin purified protein derivative products;
(v) self-administered hormonal contraceptives, including subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate;
(vi) dietary fluoride supplements;
(vii) for patients 18 years of age or older, vaccinations recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and administered consistently with the ACIP-approved immunization schedules, as may be amended from time to time;
(viii) for patients five years of age or older, influenza vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine, and subsequent formulations or combination products thereof;
(ix) in the event of a significant public health risk, an appropriate vaccine to mitigate the effects on public health after finding that existing channels for vaccine administration are insufficient to meet the public health need;
(x) emergency prescribing of albuterol or glucagon while contemporaneously contacting emergency services;
(xi) tests for COVID-19 for individuals by entities holding a Certificate of Waiver pursuant to the Clinical Laboratory Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. § 263a). If a test for COVID-19, prescribed, ordered, or administered by a pharmacist in accordance with this section and the resulting State protocol incidentally detects influenza or human respiratory syncytial virus, a pharmacist shall advise the individual tested that the results indicate influenza or human respiratory syncytial virus infection and recommend to the individual to seek further care from an appropriate health care provider;
(xii) tests for SARS-CoV for asymptomatic individuals or related serology for individuals by entities holding a Certificate of Waiver pursuant to the Clinical Laboratory Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. § 263a); and
(xiii) emergency contraception.
(B)(i) State protocols shall be valid if signed by the Commissioner of Health and the Director of Professional Regulation, and the Board of Pharmacy shall feature the active protocol conspicuously on its website.
(ii) The Commissioner of Health may invalidate a protocol if the Commissioner finds that the protocol’s continued operation would pose an undue risk to the public health, safety, or welfare and signs a declaration to that effect. Upon such a declaration, the Director shall remove the invalidated protocol from the Board website and shall cause electronic notice of the protocol’s discontinuation to be transmitted to all Vermont drug outlets.
(3) Accessory devices. A pharmacist may prescribe accessory-type devices, such as spacers, needles, and diabetic testing supplies, where clinically indicated in the judgment of the pharmacist.
(4) Prescriber-authorized substitution. A prescribing practitioner licensed pursuant to this title may authorize a pharmacist to substitute a drug with another drug in the same therapeutic class that would, in the opinion of the pharmacist, have substantially equivalent therapeutic effect even though the substitute drug is not a therapeutic equivalent drug, provided:
(A) the prescriber has clearly indicated that drug product substitution is permissible by indicating “therapeutic substitution allowed” or similar designation;
(B) the drug product substitution is intended to ensure formulary compliance with the patient’s health insurance plan or otherwise to minimize cost to the patient;
(C) the patient’s voluntary, informed consent is obtained in writing; and
(D) the pharmacist or designee notifies the prescriber which drug was dispensed as a substitute within five days of dispensing.
(5) Over-the-counter availability. A pharmacist may prescribe over-the-counter drugs where appropriate to reduce costs to the patient, such as by drawing from a health savings account or flexible spending account.
(6) Short-term extensions.
(A) A pharmacist may extend a previous prescription in the absence of a collaborative practice agreement or a State protocol so long as the pharmacist provides only sufficient quantity to the patient until the patient is able to consult with another practitioner, not to exceed a five-day supply or the smallest available unit, and takes all reasonable measures to notify the patient’s primary care provider of record or the appropriate original prescriber, if the original prescriber is different from the primary care provider of record.
(B) A short-term extension shall be provided on a one-time basis.
(c) Board rules shall:
(1) specify the required elements of a collaborative practice agreement;
(2) prohibit conflicts of interest and inappropriate commercial incentives related to prescribing, such as reimbursement based on brands or numbers of prescriptions filled, renewing prescriptions without request by a patient, steering patients to particular brands or selections of products based on any commercial relationships, or acceptance of gifts offered or provided by manufactures in violation of 18 V.S.A. § 4631a;
(3) define appropriate bounds of short-term extension prescribing; and
(4) establish minimum standards for patient privacy in clinical consultation. (Added 2015, No. 173 (Adj. Sess.), § 6, eff. June 8, 2016; amended 2019, No. 178 (Adj. Sess.), § 11, eff. Oct. 1, 2020; 2021, No. 20, § 262; 2023, No. 15, § 11, eff. May 10, 2023; 2023, No. 77, § 8, eff. June 20, 2023.)