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Searching 2023-2024 Session

The Vermont Statutes Online

The Vermont Statutes Online does not include the actions of the 2024 session of the General Assembly. We expect them to be updated by November 1st.

NOTE: The Vermont Statutes Online is an unofficial copy of the Vermont Statutes Annotated that is provided as a convenience.

Title 12 : Court Procedure

Chapter 081 : Conduct of Trial

Subchapter 001 : Generally

(Cite as: 12 V.S.A. § 1913)
  • § 1913. Blockchain enabling

    (a) As used in this section:

    (1) “Blockchain” means a cryptographically secured, chronological, and decentralized consensus ledger or consensus database maintained via Internet, peer-to-peer network, or other interaction.

    (2) “Blockchain technology” means computer software or hardware or collections of computer software or hardware, or both, that utilize or enable a blockchain.

    (b) Authentication, admissibility, and presumptions.

    (1) A digital record electronically registered in a blockchain shall be self-authenticating pursuant to Vermont Rule of Evidence 902, if it is accompanied by a written declaration of a qualified person, made under oath, stating the qualification of the person to make the certification and:

    (A) the date and time the record entered the blockchain;

    (B) the date and time the record was received from the blockchain;

    (C) that the record was maintained in the blockchain as a regular conducted activity; and

    (D) that the record was made by the regularly conducted activity as a regular practice.

    (2) A digital record electronically registered in a blockchain, if accompanied by a declaration that meets the requirements of subdivision (1) of this subsection, shall be considered a record of regularly conducted business activity pursuant to Vermont Rule of Evidence 803(6) unless the source of information or the method or circumstance of preparation indicate lack of trustworthiness. For purposes of this subdivision (2), a record includes information or data.

    (3) The following presumptions apply:

    (A) A fact or record verified through a valid application of blockchain technology is authentic.

    (B) The date and time of the recordation of the fact or record established through such a blockchain is the date and time that the fact or record was added to the blockchain.

    (C) The person established through such a blockchain as the person who made such recordation is the person who made the recordation.

    (D) If the parties before a court or other tribunal have agreed to a particular format or means of verification of a blockchain record, a certified presentation of a blockchain record consistent with this section to the court or other tribunal in the particular format or means agreed to by the parties demonstrates the contents of the record.

    (4) A presumption does not extend to the truthfulness, validity, or legal status of the contents of the fact or record.

    (5) A person against whom the fact operates has the burden of producing evidence sufficient to support a finding that the presumed fact, record, time, or identity is not authentic as set forth on the date added to the blockchain, but the presumption does not shift to a person the burden of persuading the trier of fact that the underlying fact or record is itself accurate in what it purports to represent.

    (c) Without limitation, the presumption established in this section shall apply to a fact or record maintained by blockchain technology to determine:

    (1) contractual parties, provisions, execution, effective dates, and status;

    (2) the ownership, assignment, negotiation, and transfer of money, property, contracts, instruments, and other legal rights and duties;

    (3) identity, participation, and status in the formation, management, record keeping, and governance of any person;

    (4) identity, participation, and status for interactions in private transactions and with a government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality;

    (5) the authenticity or integrity of a record, whether publicly or privately relevant; and

    (6) the authenticity or integrity of records of communication.

    (d) The provisions of this section shall not create or negate:

    (1) an obligation or duty for any person to adopt or otherwise implement blockchain technology for any purpose authorized in this section; or

    (2) the legality or authorization for any particular underlying activity whose practices or data are verified through the application of blockchain technology. (Added 2015, No. 157 (Adj. Sess.), § I.1; amended 2017, No. 205 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.)