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Searching 2023-2024 Session

The Vermont Statutes Online

The Vermont Statutes Online have been updated to include the actions of the 2023 session of the General Assembly.

NOTE: The Vermont Statutes Online is an unofficial copy of the Vermont Statutes Annotated that is provided as a convenience.

Title 9 : Commerce and Trade

Chapter 062 : Protection of Personal Information

Subchapter 003A : Student Privacy

(Cite as: 9 V.S.A. § 2443)
  • § 2443. Definitions

    As used in this subchapter:

    (1) “Covered information” means personal information or material, or information that is linked to personal information or material, in any media or format that is:

    (A)(i) not publicly available; or

    (ii) made publicly available pursuant to the federal Family Educational and Rights and Privacy Act; and

    (B)(i) created by or provided to an operator by a student or the student’s parent or legal guardian in the course of the student’s, parent’s, or legal guardian’s use of the operator’s site, service, or application for PreK-12 school purposes;

    (ii) created by or provided to an operator by an employee or agent of a school or school district for PreK-12 school purposes; or

    (iii) gathered by an operator through the operation of its site, service, or application for PreK-12 school purposes and personally identifies a student, including information in the student’s education record or electronic mail, first and last name, home address, telephone number, electronic mail address or other information that allows physical or online contact, discipline records, test results, special education data, juvenile dependency records, grades, evaluations, criminal records, medical records, health records, Social Security number, biometric information, disability status, socioeconomic information, food purchases, political affiliations, religious information, text messages, documents, student identifiers, search activity, photos, voice recordings, or geolocation information.

    (2) “Operator” means, to the extent that an entity is operating in this capacity, the operator of an Internet website, online service, online application, or mobile application with actual knowledge that the site, service, or application is used primarily for PreK-12 school purposes and was designed and marketed for PreK-12 school purposes.

    (3) “PreK-12 school purposes” means purposes that are directed by or that customarily take place at the direction of a school, teacher, or school district; aid in the administration of school activities, including instruction in the classroom or at home, administrative activities, and collaboration between students, school personnel, or parents; or are otherwise for the use and benefit of the school.

    (4) “School” means:

    (A) a public or private preschool, kindergarten, elementary or secondary educational institution, vocational school, special educational agency or institution; and

    (B) a person, agency, or institution that maintains school student records from more than one of the entities described in subdivision (6)(A) of this section.

    (5) “Targeted advertising” means presenting advertisements to a student where the advertisement is selected based on information obtained or inferred over time from that student’s online behavior, usage of applications, or covered information. The term does not include advertising to a student at an online location based upon that student’s current visit to that location or in response to that student’s request for information or feedback, without the retention of that student’s online activities or requests over time for the purpose in whole or in part of targeting subsequent ads. (Added 2019, No. 89 (Adj. Sess.), § 4.)