The Vermont Statutes Online
The Vermont Statutes Online have been updated to include the actions of the 2023 session of the General Assembly.
NOTE: The Vermont Statutes Online is an unofficial copy of the Vermont Statutes Annotated that is provided as a convenience.
Subchapter 003 : Formal Proceedings(Cite as: 8 V.S.A. § 7065)
§ 7065. Fraudulent transfers prior to petition
(a) Every transfer made or suffered and every obligation incurred by an insurer within one year prior to the filing of a successful petition for rehabilitation or liquidation under this chapter is fraudulent as to then existing and future creditors if made or incurred without fair consideration, or with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud either existing or future creditors. A transfer made or an obligation incurred by an insurer ordered to be rehabilitated or liquidated under this chapter, which is fraudulent under this section, may be avoided by the receiver, except as to a person who in good faith is a purchaser, lienor, or obligee, for a present fair equivalent value, and except that a purchaser, lienor, or obligee, who in good faith has given a consideration less than fair for such transfer, lien, or obligation, may retain the property, lien, or obligation as security for repayment. The court may, on due notice, order any such transfer or obligation to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, and in that event, the receiver shall succeed to and may enforce the rights of the purchaser, lienor, or obligee.
(b)(1) A transfer of property other than real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could become superior to the rights of the transferee under subsection 7067(c) of this title.
(2) A transfer of real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent bona fide purchaser from the insurer could obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee.
(3) A transfer that creates an equitable lien shall not be deemed to be perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be created.
(4) Any transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation shall be deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition.
(5) The provisions of this subsection apply whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained any liens or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers.
(c) A transaction of the insurer with a reinsurer shall be deemed fraudulent and may be avoided by the receiver under subsection (a) of this section if:
(1) the transaction consists of the termination, adjustment, or settlement of a reinsurance contract in which the reinsurer is released from any part of its duty to pay the originally specified share of losses that had occurred prior to the time of the transactions, unless the reinsurer gives a present fair equivalent value for the release; and
(2) any part of the transaction took place within one year prior to the date of filing of the petition through which the receivership was commenced.
(d) Every person receiving any property from the insurer or any benefit thereof that is a fraudulent transfer under subsection (a) of this section shall be personally liable therefore and shall be bound to account to the liquidator.
(e) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, section 7066 of this title, or any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, no receiver or any other person shall avoid any transfer of, or any obligation to transfer, money or any other property arising under or in connection with any pledge, security, credit, collateral, loan, advances, reimbursement, or guarantee agreement or arrangement, or any similar agreement, arrangement, or other credit enhancement to which a federal home loan bank, as defined in section 7033 of this title, is a party, that is made, incurred, or assumed prior to or after the filing of a successful petition for rehabilitation or liquidation under this chapter, or otherwise would be subject to avoidance under this section or section 7066 of this title; provided, however, that a transfer may be avoided under this section or section 7066 of this title if the transfer was made with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the insurer, a receiver appointed for the insurer, or existing or future creditors. (Added 1991, No. 45, § 2, eff. May 29, 1991; amended 2023, No. 32, § 11, eff. July 1, 2023.)