The Vermont Statutes Online
Title 26: Professions and Occupations
Chapter 030: OPTOMETRY
- Subchapter 001: GENERAL PROVISIONS
§ 1701. Legislative findings
The Legislature finds and declares that the public health, safety, and welfare of the State of Vermont requires the exercise of the authority of this State to safeguard the people of Vermont and further that the right to practice optometry is a privilege conferred by legislative grant to persons possessed of personal and professional qualifications. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.)
§ 1702. Short title
This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the “Vermont Optometry Practice Act.” (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.)
§ 1703. Definitions
As used in this chapter:
(1) “Board” means the State Board of Optometry.
(2) The “practice of optometry” means any one or combination of the following practices:
(A) Examining the human eyes and visual system for purposes of:
(i) diagnosing refractive and functional ability; or
(ii) diagnosing the presence of eye and adnexa disease or injury, treating the disease or injury with the appropriate pharmaceutical agents and procedures in accordance with this chapter, and making referrals to the appropriate health care provider when warranted.
(B) Diagnosing and correcting anomalies of the refractive and functional ability of the visual system and the enhancement of visual performance including the following:
(i) prescribing and using ophthalmic lenses, prisms, autorefractor or other automatic testing devices, frames, ophthalmic aids, and prosthetic materials as consistent with the health of the eye;
(ii) prescribing and employing contact lenses; and
(iii) administering visual training, vision therapy, orthoptics, and pleoptics.
(C) Prescribing appropriate pharmaceutical agents for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of the eye and adnexa.
(D) Removing superficial foreign bodies from the eye and adnexa; epilating the eyelashes, including by electrolysis; and punctal dilation, lacrimal irrigation, and punctal plugs insertion.
(E) Managing the following types of glaucoma in patients who are 16 years of age or older:
(i) adult primary open angle glaucoma;
(ii) exfoliative glaucoma;
(iii) pigmentary glaucoma;
(iv) low tension glaucoma;
(v) inflammatory (uveitic) glaucoma; and
(vi) emergency treatment of angle closure glaucoma.
(3) “Director” means the Director of the Office of Professional Regulation.
(4) “Financial interest” means being:
(A) a licensed practitioner of optometry; or
(B) a person who deals in goods and services that are uniquely related to the practice of optometry; or
(C) a person who has invested anything of value in a business that provides optometric services.
(5) “Contact lenses” means those lenses that are worn for cosmetic, therapeutic, or refractive purposes. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; 2003, No. 108 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; 2009, No. 35, § 27; 2009, No. 103 (Adj. Sess.), § 11; 2011, No. 116 (Adj. Sess.), § 23; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1704. Penalties
A person who obtains a license by fraud or misrepresentation or who practices or attempts to practice optometry or hold himself or herself out as being able to do so in this State without first having obtained the license required by this chapter shall be subject to the penalties provided in 3 V.S.A. § 127. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 2007, No. 29, § 29; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
- Subchapter 002: STATE BOARD OF OPTOMETRY
§ 1707. Qualifications; term of office; removal
(a) The State Board of Optometry is created.
(b) The Board shall consist of five members, three of whom shall be residents of the State who have had at least five years’ experience in the practice of optometry in the State and are in the active practice of optometry at the time of their appointment; and two members who shall be representatives of the public, who shall be residents of the State for five years, and who shall have no financial interest in the profession other than as a consumer or potential consumer of its services.
(c) Board members shall be appointed by the Governor pursuant to 3 V.S.A. §§ 129b and 2004.
(d) [Repealed.] (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 2005, No. 27, § 46; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1708. Powers and duties
(a) The Board shall:
(1) Adopt rules under the Vermont Administrative Procedure Act necessary for the performance of its duties, ensuring that at least the following are established by statute or rule:
(A) a definition of the behavior for which a license is required;
(B) explanations of appeal and other significant rights given by law to licensees, applicants, and the public; and
(C) standards for acceptance of continuing education, which may identify mandatory content specific to pharmacology, and management of adverse drug reactions.
(c) The Board shall not limit the:
(1) ownership of optometric practices to licensed optometrists;
(2) number of offices or sites at which an optometrist may practice; or
(3) right of optometrists to practice in an association, partnership, corporation, or other lawful entity with anyone. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 2; 1989, No. 250 (Adj. Sess.), § 4(d); 2009, No. 35, § 28; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1709. Functioning of Board of Optometry
(a) Annually, the Board shall meet to elect a chair, vice chair, and a secretary.
(b) Meetings may be called by the Chair and shall be called upon the request of any other two members.
(c) Meetings shall be warned and conducted in accordance with 1 V.S.A. chapter 5.
(d) A majority of the members of a Board shall constitute a quorum for transacting business, and all action shall be taken upon a majority vote of the members present and voting.
(f) [Repealed.] (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 2005, No. 27, § 47; 2009, No. 35, § 41.)
§ 1710. Repealed. 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 3.
- Subchapter 003: EXAMINATIONS AND LICENSES
§ 1712. License required
(a) No person may practice optometry in this State who is not licensed under this chapter.
(b) Licensing standards and procedures established by the Board shall be fair and reasonable and shall be designed and implemented to measure and reasonably ensure an applicant’s qualifications to practice the occupation. They shall not be designed or implemented for the purpose of limiting the size of the occupation.
(c) If a licensee has a principal place of business for a licensed occupation, a license shall be prominently displayed at that place.
(d) Licenses may not be transferred.
(e) No persons may use the title “doctor of optometry,” “optometrist,” or any substantially equivalent title unless he or she is licensed under this chapter.
(f) Nothing contained in subsection (a) of this section shall prevent a student from providing optometric services:
(1) under the on-site supervision of a licensed optometrist or ophthalmologist at a State hospital;
(2) as part of an optometric clinical program under the on-site supervision of a licensed optometry instructor of a school of optometry, a college, or an optometry department of a university recognized by the Board; or
(3) as a student intern in a hospital under the on-site supervision of a licensed optometrist or ophthalmologist. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1991, No. 167 (Adj. Sess.), § 34a; 2005, No. 148 (Adj. Sess.), § 14.)
§ 1713. Exemptions
(a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit other licensed health care professionals from practicing to the full extent of their licenses, nor to apply to any eye screening, State or government eye testing programs, nor to any instruction in any medical, osteopathic, or nursing school.
(b) Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit persons or corporations from making mechanical repairs to spectacles, nor shall it prohibit any person, firm, or corporation engaged in grinding lenses and filling prescriptions from replacing lenses or filling prescriptions issued by a duly licensed optometrist or physician. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.)
§ 1714. Repealed. 2009, No. 35, § 41(a).
§ 1715. Licensure by examination
(a) The Board may grant a license to an applicant who:
(1) has attained the age of majority;
(2) is a graduate of an optometric school or college accredited by a regional or professional accreditation organization approved by the Board;
(3) holds a current cardiopulmonary resuscitation certification from the American Red Cross, the Vermont Heart Association, or a comparable source recognized by the Director;
(4) has successfully completed an examination approved by the Board; and
(5) has paid the fee required by section 1718 of this chapter.
(b) [Repealed.] (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 4; 2009, No. 35, § 29; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1716. Licensure by endorsement
The Board may issue a license to an applicant who is licensed and currently in good standing in a United States jurisdiction having license requirements that are substantially equivalent to the requirements of this chapter. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1997, No. 40, § 23; 2009, No. 35, § 30.)
§ 1716a. Renewal
Licenses shall be renewed every two years upon payment of the required fee, provided that the person applying for renewal completes at least 40 hours of continuing education, approved by the Board, during the preceding two-year period and holds a current cardiopulmonary resuscitation certification. (Added 1987, No. 236 (Adj. Sess.), § 2; amended 1993, No. 216 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; 2009, No. 35, § 31; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1717. Repealed. 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 5.
§ 1718. Fees
Applicants and persons regulated under this chapter shall pay the following fees:
(1) Application $225.00
(2) Biennial renewal $350.00 (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), § 6; 1989, No. 250 (Adj. Sess.), § 46; 1997, No. 59, § 56, eff. June 30, 1997; 2005, No. 202 (Adj. Sess.), § 15; 2013, No. 191 (Adj. Sess.), § 17; 2019, No. 178 (Adj. Sess.), § 9, eff. Oct. 1, 2020.)
- Subchapter 004: UNPROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE
§ 1719. Unprofessional conduct
(a) Unprofessional conduct is the conduct prohibited by this section and by 3 V.S.A. § 129a, whether committed by a licensee, an applicant, or a person who later becomes an applicant.
(b) Unprofessional conduct means:
(1) Conduct that evidences moral unfitness to practice the occupation.
(2) Any of the following except when reasonably undertaken in an emergency situation in order to protect life, health, or property:
(A) Practicing or offering to practice beyond the scope permitted by law.
(B) Performing treatments or providing services that a licensee is not qualified to perform or that are beyond the scope of the licensee’s education, training, capabilities, experience, or scope of practice.
(C) Performing occupational services that have not been authorized by the consumer or his or her legal representative.
(3) Any of the following with regard to the buyer's prescription or purchase of ophthalmic goods:
(B) Conditioning the availability of an eye examination to any person on a requirement that person agree to purchase any ophthalmic goods from the optometrists.
(C) Charging the buyer any fee in addition to the optometrist's examination fee as a condition to releasing the prescription to the buyer. Provided, an optometrist may charge an additional fee for verifying ophthalmic goods dispensed by another seller when the additional fee is imposed at the time the verification is performed.
(D) Placing on the prescription or requiring the buyer to sign, or delivering to the buyer a form or notice waiving or disclaiming the liability or responsibility of the optometrist for the accuracy of the eye examination or the accuracy of the prescription for ophthalmic goods or services to be dispensed by another seller.
(E) Failure to comply with prescription-released requirements established in the Federal Ophthalmic Practice Rule (16 C.F.R. Part 456) or the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 7601-7610).
(c) After hearing, the Board may take disciplinary action against a licensee or applicant found guilty of unprofessional conduct. (Added 1979, No. 158 (Adj. Sess.), § 1; amended 1983, No. 242 (Adj. Sess.), §§ 7-9; 1993, No. 108 (Adj. Sess.), § 8; 1997, No. 145 (Adj. Sess.), § 41; 2003, No. 108 (Adj. Sess.), § 2; 2009, No. 103 (Adj. Sess.), § 12; 2011, No. 116 (Adj. Sess.), § 24; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1720. Repealed. 1989, No. 250 (Adj. Sess.), § 92.
§ 1721. Repealed. 2009, No. 35, § 41(a).
- Subchapter 005: DIAGNOSTIC PHARMACEUTICAL AGENTS
§ 1723. Repealed. 2009, No. 103 (Adj. Sess.), § 53.
§ 1724. Repealed. 2005, No. 71, § 72a, eff. July 1, 2006.
§ 1724a. Repealed. 2009, No. 103 (Adj. Sess.), § 53.
§ 1725. Repealed. 2009, No. 35, § 41(a).
§ 1726. Repealed. 1993, No. 216 (Adj. Sess.), § 4.
§ 1727. Expiration date
(a) An optometrist shall state the expiration date on the face of every prescription written by that optometrist for contact lenses. The expiration date shall be one year after the examination date unless a medical or refractive problem affecting vision requires an earlier expiration date.
(b) An optometrist shall not refuse to give the buyer a copy of the buyer’s prescription after the expiration date; however, the copy shall be clearly marked to indicate that it is an expired prescription. (Added 1993, No. 108 (Adj. Sess.), § 9; amended 2011, No. 116 (Adj. Sess.), § 25; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
- Subchapter 006: THERAPEUTIC PHARMACEUTICAL AGENTS
§ 1728. Use of therapeutic pharmaceutical agents
(a)(1) A licensee who employs an oral therapeutic pharmaceutical agent that might prove to have significant systemic adverse reactions or systemic side effects shall, in a manner consistent with Vermont law, ascertain the risk of systemic side effects through either a case history or by communicating with the patient’s primary care provider.
(2) The licensee shall also communicate with the patient’s primary care provider, or with a physician skilled in diseases of the eye, when, in the professional judgment of the licensee, it is medically appropriate.
(3) Any communication shall be noted in the patient’s permanent record. The methodology of communication shall be determined by the licensee.
(b)(1) If a glaucoma patient does not respond to up to three topically administered pharmaceutical agents within a reasonable time, the licensee shall refer the patient to a licensed ophthalmologist.
(2) A glaucoma patient shall not be treated by an optometrist with more than three topically administered agents at any given time.
(3) If an oral medication is required to obtain an adequate clinical response in a glaucoma patient, the licensee shall consult with a licensed ophthalmologist as soon as clinically prudent following initiation of the oral medication.
(4) This subsection shall not require that the licensee transfer care of the patient to the consulting ophthalmologist, but does require that the patient be seen by the consulting ophthalmologist. (Added 1993, No. 216 (Adj. Sess.), § 3; amended 2003, No. 108 (Adj. Sess.), § 5; 2009, No. 103 (Adj. Sess.), § 13; 2019, No. 30, § 12.)
§ 1728a. Repealed. 2019, No. 30, § 12.
§ 1728b. Repealed. 2005, No. 71, § 72b.
§§ 1728c-1729a. Repealed. 2019, No. 30, § 12.