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The Vermont Statutes Online

Title 10 Appendix : Vermont Fish and Wildlife Regulations

Chapter 001 : GAME

Subchapter 001 : GENERAL PROVISIONS

(Cite as: 10 App. V.S.A. § 10)
  • § 10. Vermont endangered and threatened species rule

     1.0 Authority

    This rule is adopted pursuant to 10 V.S.A. §§ 5402, 5403, and 5408 which provides that the Secretary "shall adopt by rule a state-endangered species list and a state threatened species list," and may "adopt rules for the protection and conservation of endangered and threatened species."

     2.0 Purpose

    The purpose of this rule is to identify and list species of wild plants and animals that have been determined by the Secretary to be endangered and threatened in Vermont so that they may be protected under the law. The rule also sets out a process for Takings and Possession permits.

     3.0 Definitions

    3.1 "Endangered Species" means those species whose continued existence as viable components of the state's wild flora or fauna is determined to be in jeopardy or determined to be an "endangered species" under the federal Endangered Species Act.

    3.2 "Listed Species" means any species that appears on the List in Section 5.0 of this rule, or has been determined to be threatened or endangered by other relevant law.

    3.3 "Secretary"  means the Secretary of the Agency of Natural Resources except where otherwise specified.

    3.4 "Take and taking" with respect to wildlife means pursuing, shooting, hunting, killing, capturing, trapping, snaring and netting fish, birds and quadrupeds and all lesser acts, such as disturbing, harrying or worrying or wounding or placing, setting, drawing or using any net or other device commonly used to take fish or wild animals, whether they result in the taking or not; and shall include every attempt to take and every act of assistance to every other person in taking or attempting to take fish or wild animals, provided that when taking is allowed by law, reference is had to taking by lawful means and in lawful manner, and with respect to wild plants means uprooting, transplanting, cutting, injuring or killing or any attempt to do the same or assisting another who is doing or is attempting to do the same, consistent with the definitions found in 10 V.S.A. §§ 5401 (14) and 4001(23).

    3.5 "Threatened Species" means those species that are likely within the foreseeable future to become Endangered.

     4.0 Permits for Taking and Possession

    4.1 No person shall take or possess an endangered or threatened species, except when exempted as provided for in 10 V.S.A. § 5408.

    4.2 Pursuant to 10 V.S.A. § 5408(a) the Secretary may, after receiving the advice of the Endangered Species Committee, grant permits for the taking and possession of an endangered or threatened species: for scientific purposes; to enhance the propagation of species; to prevent or mitigate economic hardship; for zoological exhibition; for educational purposes; for noncommercial cultural or ceremonial purposes to a person for the collection and possession of a dead salvage bird or parts thereof, including bird feathers, provided that the permit issued complies with federal requirements regarding collection and possession of migratory birds and the bird was legally acquired, transferred from an individual who acquired it legally, or found dead and the permittee had no part in the intentional killing of the bird; or for a special purpose consistent with the purpose of the Federal Endangered Species Act ( see 16 U.S.C. § 1531(b)).

    4.3 An applicant for a Taking and Possession permit shall submit an administratively complete application to the Secretary, specifying for which purpose(s) the permit is required, as listed in 10 V.S.A. § 5408(a).

    4.4 An administratively complete application shall include all information deemed necessary by the Secretary to evaluate the application. An application shall include a description of the possible impacts due to the proposed action and a plan for conservation or mitigation. The fee or mitigation proposal as required by 10 V.S.A. ch. 123 shall accompany the application.

    4.5 Avoidance and Minimization

    a. Applicants for Takings and Possession permits shall have the burden to show that reasonable steps have been taken in to avoid and minimize takings. The Applicant shall provide information that demonstrates:

    i. The proposed activity cannot practicably be designed to avoid taking and still satisfy the basic project purpose; and

    ii. If avoidance of taking of a listed species cannot practicably be achieved, the proposed activity has been planned to minimize adverse impacts on the listed species.

    b. The Secretary may require an applicant to submit additional information that the Secretary considers necessary to make a decision on the issuance or denial of a permit. The Secretary may dismiss the application without prejudice if the requested information is not provided to the Secretary within sixty (60) days of the Secretary's request.

    c. In determining whether the burden has been met, the Secretary shall evaluate the potential effect of any proposed activity on the basis of both its direct and immediate effects, as well as on the basis of any cumulative or on-going effects on the listed species.

    4.6 Mitigation

    a. Mitigation may be required when full compliance with the requirements of 4.5 of this rule is insufficient to achieve no taking.

    i. Mitigation may include permanent conservation of habitat in which the same species exists, ongoing monitoring of conserved areas, and treatment of conserved areas for the purposes of restoration or propagation of listed species.

    ii. The mitigation may also include payment of fees to a state "in-lieu fee" program or mitigation fund approved by the Secretary.

    4.7 Hearings

    a. The Secretary may conduct a non-adversarial, public hearing in order to evaluate the application. Such a hearing will be held within 60 (sixty) days of the receipt of the administratively complete application.

    b. When a petition has been denied and no public hearing has been held, the Applicant may request in writing to the Secretary that a hearing be held regarding the proposed activity. The Secretary will conduct a hearing within 30 (thirty) days of receipt of the request.

    4.8 Permit Conditions

    The Secretary may require, as part of any issued permit, conditions for the protection and conservation of endangered species, per 10 V.S.A. ch. 123.

    4.9 The Secretary shall inform an applicant of a decision to approve or deny a permit no more than 60 (sixty) days following an application being deemed administratively complete unless the Secretary determines there is just cause.

    4.10 The Secretary maintains continuing jurisdiction over activities permitted under this rule and may, at any time, order the permittee to undertake remedial measures to ensure the protection and conservation of listed species.

     5.0 Listing

    5.1 The following list of plants and animals is adopted as the Vermont Endangered and Threatened Species List pursuant to 10 V.S.A. ch. 123.

     5.2 Plants

    Scientific Name              Common Name                Status                     Date

                                                                                                                Listed*

    PLANTS

    APIACEAE PARSLEY

       FAMILY                                                      

     Sanicuia canadensis var.           Short-styled snakeroot  T                      1            

       canadensis L.                                                               

     Sanicula canadensis var.           Greater short-styled                  T                      1            

        grandis Fern.                                    snakeroot                                     

     Taenidia integerrima (L.)          Yellow pimpernel                      T                      1            

        Drude                                                                         

     

    ARACEAE-ARUM

      FAMILY                                                          

     Arisaema dracontium (L.)      Green dragon                  T                      1            

        Schott                                                                       

     

    ASCLEPIADACEAE-

      MILKWEED FAMILY                                               

     Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm.   Blunt-leaved milkweed        T                 1            

     Asclepias tuberosa L.               Butterfly-weed                         T                      1            

    Asclepias verticillata L.               Whorled Milkweed                 E                      11

     


     

    ASPLENIACEAE-SPLEEN-

      WORT FAMILY                                               

     Asplenium montanum Willd.   Mountain spleenwort                  T                      1            

     Asplenium viride Huds.           Green spleenwort                      T                      1            

      *(Aspelenium trichomanes-                                                  

      ramosum L.)                                                                 

     

    ASTERACEAE-ASTER

       FAMILY                                                      

     Eupatorium sessilifolium L.   Sessile-leaved boneset                  E                      4            

     Helianthus strumosus L.         Harsh sunflower             T                      1            

     Lactuca hirsuta Muhl.    Hairy lettuce               T                      5            

        Ex. Nutt.

     Nabalus boottii D.C.               Boott's rattlesnake-root             E                      1            

      *(Prenanthes boottii (DC.)                                                  

       A. Gray)                                                                     

     Omalotheca sylvatica                                                        

     L. Schultz-Bip. & F.W.            Woodland cudweed                E                      4            

        Schultz

     Petasites frigidus var.                Sweet coltsfoot                        T                      1            

    palmatus (Ait.)                                                              

     Cronq.                                                                      

     Polymnia canadensis L.          White-flowered leafcup              E                      5, A          

     Solidago odora ssp. Odora       Sweet goldenrod                     T                      1            

        Ait. *(Solidgo odora Ait.)

     Solidago ulmifolia Muhl.        Elm-leaved goldenrod                  E                      4, A          

        ex. Willd.                                                                       

     

    BETULACEAE-BIRCH

       FAMILY

    Betula minor (Tuckerman)           Dwarf birch                            E                      11

       Fern.

     

    BLECHNACEAE-CHAIN

       FERN FAMILY                                                

     Woodwardia virginica (L.)     Sm. Virginia chain-fern                T                      1            

     

    BORAGINACEAE-BORAGE

        FAMILY                                                    

     Cynoglossum virginianum      Northern wild camfrey                 T                      1            

        var. boreale (Fern.)                                                        

        Cooperider                                                                    

     Hackelia deflexa (Wahlenb)    Nodding stickseed                     T                      1            

       Opiz ssp. americana

      (Gray) A. & D. Löve                                                                         

     

    BRASSICACEAE-

       MUSTARD FAMILY                                                  

    Arabidopsis lyrata                       Lyre-leaved rock-cress           T                      1            

    (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz                                                     

      *(Arabis lyrata L.)                                                         

    Boechera stricta (Graham)        Drummond's rock-cress            E                      4            

      *(Arabis drummondii A.

      Gray)                                               

    Braya humilis (C.A. Mey.)       Northern rock-cress                   T                     1            

       B.L. Rob.

    Draba canna Rydb.                      Hoary draba                           T                     1

      *(Draba breweri var. cana

       (Rydb.) Rollins)

    Draba glabella Pursh                    Smooth draba                        T                      1

    Rorippa aquatica                      Lake-cress                              T                      1            

      *(Neobeckia aquatica (Eaton)                                               

      Greene                                                                     

     

    BRYACEAE-BRYUM MOSS FAMILY                                                   

     Plagiobryum zieri (Hedw.)        A moss                                     E                      3            

    Lindb.                                                                       

     

    CAPRIFOLIACEAE-HONEYSUCKLE                                                    

    FAMILY                                                                       

     Viburnum edule (Michx.)         Squashberry                             T                      1

        Raf.     

     

    CARYOPHLLACEAE-PINK FAMILY                                                   

     Minuartia marcescens              Marcescent sandwort               T                      1            

          (Fern.) House                                                              

     Minuartia rubella                      Marble sandwort                      T                      1            

         (Wahlenb.) Hiern                                                            

     

    CISTACEAE-ROCK-ROSE FAMILY                                                   

     Crocanthemum bicknellii                                                     

          (Fern) Janchen                    Plains frostweed                        T                     1            

     Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt.        Beach heather               E                     1            

        *(Helianthemum bicknellii                                                  

        Fern.)                                                                       

     Lechea mucronata Raf.            Hairy pinweed                          E                      4            

     

    CLUSIACEAE-                                                                   

        ST. JOHN'S-WORT                                                             

        FAMILY                                                                     

     Hypericum ascyron L.              Great St. John's-wort                T                      1            

     

    CONVOLVULACEAE-                                                              

        MORNING-GLORY

        FAMILY                                                        

    Calystegia spithamaeus ssp.    Low bindweed                            T                      1

        spithamaea (L.) Pursh

        *(Calystegia spithamaeus

        (L.) Pursh)

     

    CORNACEAE-DOGWOOD FAMILY                                                     

     Cornus florida L.                     Flowering dogwood                  T                      1             

     

    CRASSULACEAE-STONECROP FAMILY                                                

     Rhodiola rosea L.                    Roseroot                                  T                      1            

        *(Sedum rosea L. Scop.)                                                     

     

    CUPRESSACEAE-CYPRESS FAMILY                                                  

     Juniperus horizontalis Moench Creeping juniper                        T                      1            

     

    CYPERACEAE-SEDGE FAMILY                                                      

     Carex arcta Boott                    Contracted sedge                     E                      4            

     Carex atratiformis Britt.            Blackish sedge                          T                      1            

     Carex buxbaumii Walenb.     Buxbaum's sedge                         E                      1            

    Carex capillaris ssp.                  Capillary sedge                         T                      1

        *(Carex capillaris L.)

        capillaris L.

    Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh,      Creeping sedge                E                      4            

        Ex L. f.                                                                                

     Carex foenea Willd.                 Bronze sedge                            E                      4            

     Carex garberi Fern.                 Garber's sedge                         T                      1            

     Carex livida (Wahlenb.)           Pale sedge                                T                      1            

       Willd.

     Carex muehlenbergii var.                                                    

    enervis                                                                      

     Schkuhr ex Willd.                    Nerveless Muelehberg

      Carex muehlenbergii var.         sedge                                       T                      1            

      muehlenbergii                                                                

     Schkuhr ex Willd.                    Muhlenberg's sedge                  T                      1            

     Carex oligocarpa Schkuhr ex Few-fruited sedge                       E                      4             

    Willd.                                                                       

     Carex richardsonii R. Br.         Richardson's sedge                   E                      1            

     Carex siccata Dewey               Hay sedge                               E                      4            

     Carex vaginata Tausch             Sheathed sedge                        E                      4            

     Cyperus diandrus Torr.            Low cyperus                            E                      3            

     Cyperus houghtonii Torr.         Houghton's cyperus                  T                      1            

    Eleocharis quinqueflora             Few-flowered spike rush          T                      1            

    (Hartmann O. Schwarz                                                         

      *(Eleocharis pauciflora                                                    

    (Lightf.) Link)                                                                       

     Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.)       Autumn fimbristylis                    E                      4            

    Roem. & Schult.                                                              

     Rhynchospora capillacea          Capillary beak-rush                  T                      1            

        Torr.

     Scirpus ancistrochaetus            Barbed-bristle bulrush               E                      4, A          

    Schuyler                                                                     

     Trichophorum planifolium                                                     

    (Spreng.) Palla                          Bashful bulrush                         E                      4, A          

      *(Scirpus verecundus Fern.)                                                

     

    DIAPENSIACEAE-DIAPENSIA

        FAMILY                                                

    Diapensia lapponica ssp.           Diapensia                                 E                      1

        lapponica L. *(Diapensia

        lapponica L.)

     

    DRYOPTERIDACEAE-WOOD

     FERN FAMILY                                                                       

     Dryopteris filix-mas (L.)           Male Fern                               T                      1            

    Schott                                                                       

     Woodsia alpina (Bolton)          Alpine woodsia                         E                      1            

       S.F.

      Gray                                                                         

     

    EQUISETACEAE-HORSETAIL

     FAMILY                                                

     Equisetum palustre L.               Marsh horsetail                         T                      1            

     

    ERICACEAE-HEATH

    FAMILY                                                      

     Pterospora andromedea           Pinedrops                                 E                      4            

        Nutt.

    Pyrola asarifoliea ssp.               Bog wintergreen                       T                      4

        asarifolia Michx.

        *(Pyrola asarifoliea ssp.

        asarifolia Michx.)

    Pyrola minor L.                         Lesser pyrola               E                      1            

     Rhododendron maximum L.  Great laurel                                 T                      1            

    Vaccinium stamineum L.        Deerberry                                    E                      5            

     

    FABACEAE-PEA FAMILY                                                          

    Astragalus canadensis var.        Canadian milk-vetch                 T                      1

        canadensis L.

        *(Astragalus canadensis L.)

    Astragalus robbinsii var.            Jessup's milk-vetch                   E                      1

        Jesupii Egglst. & Sheldon

    Crotalaria sagittalis L.               Rattlebox                                  T                      1

    Desmodium cuspidatum            Large-bracted tick-trefoil          E                      4

        (Muhl.ex Willd.) DC

        ex Loud.                  

    Desmondium rotundifolium        Prostrate tick-trefoil                  T                      1            

        DC.

     Lathyrus japonicus var.                                                     

    maritimus                                                                     

     (L.) Kartesz & Gandhi             Beach-pea                               T                      1            

      *(Lathyrus maritimus (L.)                                                  

    Bigelow)                                                                     

     Lathyrus palustris L.                 Marsh vetchling                        T                      1            

    Lespedeza frutescens (L.)         Violet bush-cover                     T                      1            

    Hornem                                                                       

      *(Lespedeza violacea auct.                                                 

      non (L.) Pers)¹                                                            

    Lespedeza hirta ssp.                 Hairy bush-clover                     T                      4

      hirta (L.) Hornem.

      *(Lespedeza hirta (L.)

      Hornem.)

    Lupinus perennis L.                   Wild lupine                               E                      6, A          

     Senna hebecarpa (Fern.)                                                     

     Irwin & Barneby                      Wild senna                  T                      1             

     

    FAGACEAE-BEECH FAMILY                                                        

     Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.  Scrub oak                                    E                      4            

     Quercus prinoides Willd.          Dwarf chinkapin oak                 E                      7            

     

    GENTIANACEAE-GENTIAN

     FAMILY                                                  

     Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.       Fringe-top closed                     T                      1  

                                                      gentian         

     Gentianella amarella (L.)          Felwort                                    T                      1            

    Boerner                                                                      

     Gentianella quinquefolia            Stiff gentian                               T                      1            

    (L.) Small                                                                        

     

    HYDROPHYLLACEAE-                                                             

     WATERLEAF FAMILY                                                            

     Hydrophyllum canadense         Broad-leaved waterleaf             T                      1            

        (L.)

    ___________________________

    1 Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. Is now what was formerly known as L. intermedia (S. Watts) Britton and is not listed.

     

     

    ISOETACEAE-QUILLWORT

     FAMILY                                                  

     Isoetes engelmannii A.             Engelmann's quillwort                T                      1            

        Braun

    Isoetes viridimontana                Green Mountain                        E                      11

        M. Rosenthal and W.C.      quillwort

        Taylor

     

    JUNCACEAE-RUSH FAMILY                                                        

    Juncus greenei Oakes &           Greene's rush               E                      4            

        Tuckerm.                                                                     

    Juncus militaris Bigelow             Soldier rush                              E                      4            

    Juncus secundus Beauv. ex    Secund rush                     E                      4            

        Poir.                                                                        

     

    JUNICAGINACAE-ARROW-

    GRASS FAMILY                                                                      

     Triglochin maritima L.              Arrow-grass                             E                      8            

     

    LAMIACEAE-MINT                                                               

     FAMILY                                                                      

     Agastache nepetoides (L.)       Yellow giant hyssop                  T                      1            

        Kuntze                                                                       

     Agastache scrophulariaefolia Purple giant hyssop         T                      1            

         (Willd.) Kuntze                                                               

    Blephilia hirsuta var.                  Smooth wood-mint                   T                      1

        glabrata (Fern.)

        *(Blephilia hirsuta

         (Pursh.) Benth.)

    Blephilia hirsuta var. hirsuta       Hairy wood-mint                      T                      1

         (Pursh.) Benth.

        *(Blephilia hirsuta

         (Pursh.) Benth.)

    Dracocephalum parviflorum  American dragonhead                   T                      1            

         Nutt.                                                                        

    Physostegia virginiana (L.)         Obedience                   T                      1            

         Benth.                                                                       

     Pycnanthemum incanum           Hoary mountain mint                 E                      4            

          (L.) Michx.                                                                       

     

     

     

     

    LENTIBULARIACEAE-                                                            

     BLADDERWORT FAMILY                                                          

     Utricularia resupinata B.D.       Northeastern bladder-              T                      1            

         B.D. Greene ex Bigelow                   wort                                          

     

    LILIACEAE-LILY FAMILY                                                        

    Allium canadense var.               Wild garlic                                T                      1

         canadense L.

         *(allium canadense L.)

    Anticlea glauca (Nutt.)  White camas                             E                      10

        Kunth

     

    LYGODIACEAE-

    CLIMBING FERN

    FAMILY                                                                        

     Lygodium palmatum                 Climbing fern                            E                      1            

          (Bernh.) Sw.

     

    MAGNOLIACEAE-

      MAGNOLIA FAMILY

    Liriodendron tuplipfera L.         Tulip tree                                  E                      11

     

    MELASTOMATACEAE-                                                              

     MEADOW-BEAUTY FAMILY                                                        

     Rhexia virginica L.                   Virginia meadow-

     beauty                                     T                      1            

     

    MORACEAE-MULBERRY

     FAMILY                                                     

     Morus rubra L.                        Red mulberry                            T                      1            

     

    NYMPHACEAE-WATER-LILY

       FAMILY                                                 

     Nymphaea leibergii Morong. Pygmy water-lily              E                      7            

    ONAGRACEAE-EVENING

      PRIM  ROSE FAMILY                                                                 

     Ludwigia polycarpa Short &  Many-fruited                  E                      1            

      Peter                                                  false-loosestrife                             

     

    OPHIOGLOSSACEAE-ADDER'S-                                                     

     TONGUE FAMILY                                                               

     Botrychium minganense            Mingan moonwort                    E                      1            

        Vict.

     

     

     

    ORCHIDACEAE-ORCHID

     FAMILY                                                    

     Aplectrum hyemale                  Putty-root                                 T                      1            

         (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.

        Torr.                                                                       

    Arethusa bulbosa L.                  Arethusa                                   T                      1            

    Calypso bulbosa var.                Fairy slipper                             T                      1

        americana (R. Br. ex Ait.

        f.) Luer

        *(Calypso bulbosa (L.)

        Oakes)

    Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. Autumn coral-root                       T                      1

        odontorhiza (Willd.)

        Nutt *(Corallorhiza

        odontorhiza (Willd.)

        Nutt.)

    Cypripedium arietinum Ait.        Ram's head lady's-slipper          T                      1            

       f.

     Isotria medeoloides (Pursh)   Small whorled pogonia                E                      4            

    Raf.  Isotria verticillata              Large whorled pogonia             T                      1            

       (Muhl. ex Willd.)  Raf.                                                                       

     Liparis liliifolia (L.) L.C.           Lily-leaved twayblade                T                     1            

       Rich.ex Ker-Gawl.

    Malaxis monophyllos var           White adder's mouth                 T                      1            

       brachypode (Gray) Morris

       & Eames *(Malaxis

       brachypoda (A. Gray) Fern.)                                                                     

    Neottia auriculata (Weig.)     Auricled twayblade          E                      1

       Szlach. *(Listeria

       auriculato Weig.)

    Neottia bifolia (Raf.)                 Southern twayblade                  E                      1

       Baumbach *(Listera

       australis Lindl.)

    Platanthera flava var.                 Tubercled orchis                       T                      1

       herbiola (R. Br. ex

       Ait. f.) Luer

       *(Platanthera flava (L.)

       Lindl.)

    Platanthera hookeri (Torr.         Hooker's orchis                        T                      1            

       ex

    Gray)  Lindl.                                                                     

     Triphora trianthophora (Sw.) Three-birds orchid                      T                      1            

    Rydb.                                                                        

     

     

     

    OROBANCHACEAE-CANCER-

    ROOT  FAMILY                                                                       

     Castilleja septentrionalis           Northern-painted-cup               T                      1            

    Lindl.                                                                       

     

    PAPAVERACEAE-POPPY

     FAMILY                                                    

     Corydalis aurea Willd.             Golden corydalis                       T                      1            

     

    PINACEAE-PINE FAMILY                                                         

     Pinus banksiana Lamb.            Jack pine                                  T                      1            

     

    PLANTAGINACEAE-

       PLANTAIN                                                      

       FAMILY                                                                       

     Hippuris vulgaris L.                  Mare's tail                                E                      4            

     Veronicastrum virginicum     Culver's-root                                E                      1            

        (L.) Farw.                                                                  

     

    POACEAE-GRASS                                                                

     FAMILY                                                                       

     Ammophila breviligulata           Champlain beach                      E                      1            

       ssp. champlainenis                 grass

       (Seymour) Walker,

       Paris, & Barrington                                                         

       ex Bankworth                                                                

      *(Ammophila champlainensis                                                 

       Seymour)                                                                      

    Anthoxanthum monticola ssp.   Alpine sweet-grass                    T                      1

       monticola (Bigelow)

       Veldkamp *(Hierochloe

       alpina (Swartz) R. & S.;

       Anthoxanthum monticola

        (Bigelow) Veldkamp)

    Calamagrostis pickeringii A. Pickering's reed-   E                      8            

     Gray, Man.                              grass                                                                 

     Calamagrostis stricta ssp.         Bentgrass                     E                      4            

    inexpansa                                                                    

      (Gray) C.W. Greene                                                         

     

    Glyceria acutiflora Torr.            Sharp manna-               E                      4            

                                                    grass

    Panicum flexile (Gattinger)         Stiff witch-                    E                      4            

    Piptatheropsis pungens              Slender mountain-       T                       4

         (Torr ex Spreng.)                 rice

        Romasch., P.M. Peterson,

        & Serong *(Oryzopsis

        pungens (Torr.) Hitchc.;

        Piptatherum pungens (Torr.

        ex Spreng. Dorn)

    Sphenopholis nitida                   Shiny wedgegrass         E                      4            

         (Biehler) Scribn.                                                                      

    Sphenopholis obtusata              Blunt spenopholis          E                      4            

         (Michx.) Scribn.                                                             

    Sporobolus compositus             Rough dropseed          E                       1

        (Poir.) Merr.

        *(Sporobolus asper

         (Michx.) Kunth)

    Vulpia octoflora (Walt.)            Eight-flowered              E                      4             

        Rydb.                                   fescue

     

    POLEMONIACEAE-PHLOX

     FAMILY                                                   

     Polemonium van-bruntiae         Eastern Jacob's             T                      1            

        Britt.                         ladder

     

    POLYGONACEAE-

    BUCKWHEAT FAMILY                                                                       

     Polygonum douglasii                Douglas' knotweed       E                      4            

        Greene

     

    PRIMULACEAE-PRIMROSE

     FAMILY                                                  

     Primula mistassinica Michx.      Bird's-eye primrose      T                      1            

     

    PTERIDACEAE-MAIDENHAIR

     FERN FAMILY                                                                       

    Adiantum viridimontanum          Green Mountain            T                      5            

        Paris                         maidenhair-fern                                        

     

    RANUNCULACEAE-

    BUTTERCUP FAMILY                                                                      

    Anemone multifida var.         Early thimbleweed       E                           1

        multifida Poir.

        *(Anemone multifida Poir.)

    Hydrastis canadensis L.            Golden-seal                 E                       1

    Ranunculus allegheniensis      Allegheny             T                      4

        Britt.                         crowfoot


     

    RHAMNACEAE-BUCKTHORN                                                         

     FAMILY                                                                       

     Ceanothus herbaceus Raf.      Prairie red-root           E                         1            

     

    ROSACEAE-ROSE FAMILY                                                         

    Potentilla litoralis Rydb.             Northern cinquefoil     E                        4            

        *(Potentilla pensylvanica L.                                               

        var.  bipinnatifida (Douglas)                                               

       T. &  G.)                                                                           

     Prunus americana Marsh.         Wild plum                   T                       1            

     Prunus susquehanae Willd.       Susquehanna sand        E                     10

                                                    cherry

    Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi            Needle-spine rose        E                      4

         (Schwein.) W.H. Lewis

        *(rosa acicularis Lindl.)

     

    RUBIACEAE-MADDER FAMILY                                                      

     Galium labradoricum Wieg.      Bog bedstraw               T                      1            

     

    SALICACEAE-WILLOW

     FAMILY                                                     

     Salix plainifolia Pursh               Tea-leaved willow       T                       1            

     Salix uva-ursi Pursh                 Bearberry willow         E                       1            

     

    SCHEUCHZIERIACEAE-

    SCHEUCHZERIA FAMILY                                                                       

     Scheuchzeria palustria L.          Pod-grass                      T                     1            

     

    SPARGANIACEAE-BUR-

    REED FAMILY                                                                       

     Sparganium nutans L.               Lesser bur-reed            T                      4            

     

    SPHAGNACEAE-SPHAGNUM                                                         

     FAMILY                                                                      

     Sphagnum subfulvum Sjors   A peat moss                 E                         3            

        *(Sphagnum nitidum

        Warnst.)                                                

     

    TOFIELDIACEAE-FALSE                                                          

    ASPHODEL FAMILY                                                               

     Triantha glutinosa (Michx.)   Sticky false-asphodel   T                          1            

        Baker *(Tofieldia gutinose                                                       

        (Michx.) Baker)                                                              

     

    ULMACEAE-ELM FAMILY                                                          

     Ulmus thomasii Sarg.               Rock elm                        T                    8            

    VALERIANACEAE-                                                       

        VALERIAN FAMILY                                                                      

     Valeriana uliginosa (Torr.                                              E                     1            

        & Marsh valerian Gray)

        Rydb.                                                                  

     

    VIOLACEAE-VIOLET FAMILY                                                      

    Viola lanceolata ssp.                  Lance-leaved violet      T                     1

        lanceolata L.

    *(Viola lanceolata L.)

     

    XYRIDACEAE-YELLOW-EYED

    GRASS FAMILY

    Xyris montana Ries                   Yellow-eyed grass         T                     1

     

    5.2.1 No enforcement shall be taken and no permit shall be required for the taking of listed threatened or endangered plants in instances where the plants are legally acquired and exist in a cultivated state or are artificially propagated (produced and grown under controlled conditions or originated from cultivated parental stock); unless the plants are cultivated or artificially propagated as part of a recovery plan or, for mitigation purposes in accordance with a takings permit, a directive of the Secretary, or an enforcement action.

     

    5.3 AMPHIPODS

    CRANGONYCTIDAE-A

    GAMMARID AMPHIPOD

    FAMILY

    Stygobromus borealis               Taconic cave                   E                   5

                                                    amphipod

    5.4 INSECTS

    5.4.1

    APIDAE-BEE FAMILY

    Bombus affinis                           Rusty-patched                E                   11

                                                     Bumble Bee

    Bombus ashtoni                         Ashton Cuckoo              E                   11

                                                     Bumble Bee

     

    Bombus terricola                       Yellow-banded               T                   11

                                                     Bumble Bee

     

    5.4.2 No enforcement shall be taken and no permit shall be required for the taking of threatened or endangered bees:

    a. for the application of pesticides unless:

    i. The pesticide was not applied in accordance with the applicable federally approved label and state Agency of Agriculture, Food, and Markets (AAFM) regulations or permits; or

    ii The Secretary of the Agency of Natural Resources after consultation with the Secretary of the Agency of Agriculture, has notified a person of the likely presence of threatened or endangered bees, has advised the person to avoid taking the bees or to obtain a permit, and the person has failed to prevent a taking or obtain a permit.

    b. for otherwise legal activities such as, silviculture, mowing, road maintenance, construction, and painting and staining unless: the Secretary of the Agency of Natural Resources, has notified a person of the likely presence of threatened or endangered bees, has advised the person to avoid taking the bees or to obtain a permit, and the person has failed to prevent a taking or obtain a permit.

    c. for aerial spraying or other activities under the direction of the Vermont Department of Health (VDH) to address public health threats such as arbovirus. The Secretary shall coordinate with AAFM and VDH to reduce the likelihood of taking bees.

     

    5.4.3 The Secretary may develop best management practices (BMPs) to avoid and minimize the taking of bees. The Secretary shall consult with the AAFM, the Vermont Agency of Transportation, VDH, and any other interested state agency prior to finalizing the BMPs.

     

    5.4.4

    CICINDELIDAE-TIGER BEETLE

    FAMILY

    Cicindela hirticollis                    Hairy-necked tiger        T                      5

                                                    beetle

    Cicindela marginipennis        Cobblestone tiger        T                            1

                                                    beetle

    Cicindela puritana                     Puritan tiger beetle     T                         5

     

    5.5 MOLLUSKS

    MARGARITIFERIDAE-PEARL

    MUSSEL FAMILY

    Margaritifera margaritifera    Eastern pearlshell        T                            5

     

    UNIONIDAE-UNIONOID MUSSEL

    FAMILY

    Alasmidonta heterodon             Dwarf wedge mussel  E                        4, A

    Alasmidonta varicosa                Brook floater              T                        5

    Anodontoides ferussacianus      Cylindrical paper-         E                      6

                                                    shell

    Lampsilis ovata                         Pocketbook                 E                      6

    Lasmigona costata                    Fluted-shell                   E                      6

    Leptodea fragilis                       Fragile papershell       E                        6

    Ligumia recta                            Black sand shell          E                        6, B

    Potamilus alatus                        Pink heelsplitter          E                        6

    Pyganodon grandis                   Giant floater                  T                      6

     

     

    5.6 FISH

    ACIPENSERIDAE-STURGEON

    FAMILY

    Acipenser fulvescens                 Lake sturgeon              E                      1

     

    ICTALURIDAE-NORTH

    AMERICAN FRESHWATER

     CATFISH FAMILY

    Noturus flavus                          Stonecat                       E                      5

     

    PERCIDAE-PERCH FAMILY

    Ammocrypta pellucida              Eastern sand darter       T                      1

    Percina copelandi                     Channel darter              E                      6

     

    PETROMYZONTIDAE-

    LAMPREY FAMILY

    Ichthyomyzon fosser                 Northern brook            E                      4, A

                                                    lamprey

    Lethenteron appendix               American brook           T                      1

      *(Lampetra appendix)            lamprey

     

    5.7 AMPHIBIANS

    BUFONIDAE-TOAD

       FAMILY

    Anaxyrus fowleri                       Fowler's toad               E                      11

     

    HYLIDAE-NEW WORLD TREE

    FROG FAMILY

    Pseudacris maculata                  Boreal chorus frog        E                      10

     

    5.8 REPTILES

    COLUBRIDAE-COLUBRID

     SNAKE FAMILY

    Coluber constrictor                   North American racer T                        7

    Pantherophis alleghaniensis    Eastern ratsnake         T                           7

    *(Elaphe obsoleta)

     

    EMYDIDAE BOX TURTLE AND

    POND TURTLE FAMILY

    Clemmys guttata                       Spotted turtle                E                      6, C

     

     

     

    SCINCIDAE-SKINK FAMILY

    Plestiodon fasciatus

    *(Eumeces fasciatus)                Common five-lined     E                        1

                                                    skink

     

    TRONYCHIDAE-SOFTSHELL

    TURTLE FAMILY

    Apalone spinifera                      Spiny softshell             T                       1

     

    VIPERIDAE-VIPER AND PIT

    VIPER FAMILY

    Crotalus horridus                      Timber rattlesnake       E                       1

     

     

    5.9 BIRDS

    ACCIPITRIDAE-HAWK AND

    EAGLE FAMILY

    Haliaeetus leucocephalus           Bald eagle                    E                      1

     

    CAPRIMULGIDAE-NIGHTJAR

    FAMILY

    Antrostomus sp. vociferous     Eastern whip-                 T                      10

       *(Caprimulgus vociferus)         poor-will

    Chordeiles minor                      Common nighthawk      E                      10

     

    EMBERIZIDAE-AMERICAN

    SPARROW AND RELATIVES

    FAMILY

    Ammodramus henslowii         Henslow's sparrow          E                      1

    Ammodramus savannarun      Grasshopper sparrow  T                          6

     

    ICTERIDAE-BLACKBIRD

    FAMILY

    Euphagus carolinus                    Rusty blackbird          E                       11

     

    LANIIDAE-SHRIKE FAMILY

    Lanius ludovicianus                   Loggerhead shrike        E                      1

     

    LARIDAE-GULL AND TERN

    FAMILY

    Chlidonias niger                        Black tern                     T                      7,B

    Sterna hirindo                           Commom tern             E                       2, A

     

     

     

     

    PHASIANIDAE-TURKEY,

    GROUSE, PHESANT AND

    PARTRIDGE FAMILY

    Falcipennis canadensis              Spruce grouse              E                      2

     

    SCOPLOPACIDAE-SANPIPER,

    SNIPE AND RELATIVES

    FAMILY

    Bartramia longicauda                Upland sandpiper         T                      7, A

     

    TROGLODYTIDAE-WREN

     FAMILY

    Cistothorus platensis                 Sedge wren                  E                      6, A

     

    5.10 MAMMALS

    FELIDAE-CAT FAMILY

    Puma concolor cougar              Eastern mountain lion  E                        1

    *(Felis concolor cougar)

    Lynx canadensis                       Canada lynx                 E                      1

     

    MUSTELIDAE-WEASEL

     FAMILY

    Martes americana                     American marten         E                       1

     

    VESPERTILIONIDAE-VESPER-

    TILIONID BAT FAMILY

    Myotis leibii                              Eastern small-footed    T                       1

                                                    bat

    Myotis lucifugus                        Little brown bat           E                       9

    Myotis septentrionalis               Northern long-eared    E                       9

                                                    Bat

    Myotis sodalis                          Indiana bat                    E                     1

    Perimyotis subflavus                  Tri-colored bat E                     10

    ________

    *Date listed:

    1 = 04-13-87

    2 = 07-30-88

    3 = 06-23-89

    4 = 11-09-91

    5 = 12-07-94

    6 = 03-18-99

    7 = 04-23-05

    8 = 02-16-11

    9 = 07-15-11

    10 = 11-15-12

    11 = 3-28-2015

     

    A = listed as threatened on 04-13-87

    B = listed as threatened on 12-07-94

    C = listed as threatened on 06-23-89

     

    *Indicates a name change (synonym or different taxonomic level) from a previous Vermont Endangered and Threatened Species list

     

    (Added 1989, Regulation of the Secretary Agency of Natural Resources, eff. June 23, 1989; amended 1991, Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. Nov. 9, 1991; amended 1995, Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. Dec. 7, 1994; amended 1999, Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. Mar. 18, 1999; 2005 Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. April 28, 2005; 2011 Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. July 15, 2011; 2012 Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. Nov. 15, 2012; 2014, No. 116 (Adj. Sess.), § 13; 2015 Regulation of the Secretary of Agency of Natural Resources, eff. March 28, 2015.)